TIMELINE OF THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - THE INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES

1851 - Isaac Singer invented the modern sewing machine

1851 - Léon Foucault invented the Foucault pendulum a device demonstrating the effect of the Earth's rotation

1855 - Henry Bessemer presented the process (Bessemer process) for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron

1858 - August Kekulé founded the theory of chemical structure

1859 - Charles Darwin presented the theory of natural selection

1859 - Gaston Planté invented electric battery

1859 - Edwin Drake first drilled oil in the United States

1860 - Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch presented important discoveries from bacteriology

1860 - Etienne Lenoir invented the internal combustion engine

1861 - Johann Philipp Reis constructed one of the first working telephones

1861 - James Clerk Maxwell created the first color photography

1863 - William Bullock invented the rotary printing press

1864 - Siemens-Martin process was introduced in steel production

1865 - Gregor Mendel discovered the inheritance law

1865 - Nicholas-Joseph Cugnot constructed the Steam Tractor

1866 - Ernst Werner von Siemens invented dynamo

1866 - Robert Whitehead invented torpedo

1867 - Christopher Sholes invented typewriter

1867 - Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister introduced sterile surgery

1867 - Alfred Nobel discovered dynamite

1867 - Siegfried Markus invented the ignition device

1868 - Pierre Janssen discovered helium

1868 - John Wesley Hyatt invented celluloid

1869 - Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table

1876 - Alexander Graham Bell and Antonio Meucci separately invented telephone

1876 - Nikolaus Otto invented the internal-combustion engine

1877 - Thomas Alva Edison invented the phonograph

1879 - Thomas Alva Edison invented the long lasting light bulb

1880 - Frederic Eugene Ives invented the half-tone letterpress

1881 - the first electric passenger train started to drive in Berlin

1881 - Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacillus

1883 - Gottlieb Daimler invented the modern petrol engine

1883 - Hiram Stevens Maxim invented the automatic machine gun

1884 - Charles Algernon Parsons invented the steam turbine

1884 - Ottmar Mergenthaler invented the Linotype machine

1885 - Comte de Chardonnay developed first artificial silk

1885 - James Starley invented chain-driven bicycle

1885 - Louis Paster created the first vaccine for rabies

1885 - Karl Benz invented the gasoline-powered automobile

1885 - Gottlieb Daimler invented the gasoline-powered two-wheeler considered the first motorcycle

1885 - first operation of Vermiform appendix was performed

1885 - aseptic technique was first used during operation

1886 - Heinrich Hertz demonstrated the existence of electromagnetic radiation

1887 - Emile Berliner invented the disc record gramophone

1887 - Paul Héroult invented the electric steel furnace

1887 - Nikola Tesla invented induction motor

1888 - John Boyd Dunlop developed the first practical pneumatic tyre

1889 - Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky transmitted electric power at the distance

1890 - Sigmund Freud began with the psychoanalysis

1891 - Nikola Tesla invented the magnifying transmitter

1891-96 Otto Lilienthal made first repeated successful gliding flights

1892 - Emil von Behring developed an antitoxin for diphtheria

1893 - Carl von Linde liquefied air

1894 - the bacterium of plague was discovered

1895 - X-rays (or Röntgen rays) were discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen

1895 - the Bayer company of Germany discovered aspirin

1895 - the Lumiere brothers, Auguste and Louis, held the first screening of projected motion pictures

1896 - Rudulf Diesel invented the diesel engine

1897 - J. J. Thomson discovered electron

1898 - Radium was discovered by Maria Curie and her husband Pierre

1899 - Valdemar Poulsen developed a magnetic wire recorder

1899 - Frederick G. Creed invented teleprinter

1900 - first Zeppelin was made by German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin

1901 - Guglielmo Marconi invented wireless telegraph

1903 - the Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur, built the first fixed-wing aircraft