TIMELINE OF THE FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - THE INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES

1752 - Benjamin Franklin fonded the lightning rod

1764 - Spinning jenny was invented by James Hargreaves

1766 - Henry Cavendish discovered hydrogen

1768 - Lazzaro Spallanzani rejected the theory about the spontaneous generation of cellular life

1769 - James Watt invented the steam engine

1769 - James Cook discovered Australia

1770 - Richard Lowell Edgeworth invented the caterpillar track

1771 - Joseph Priestley discovered oxygen

1772 - Daniel Rutherford discovered nitrogen

1774 - Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered chlorine

1775 - David Bushnell created the first submarine

1775 - Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau discovered chlorine is disinfectant

1775 - Alexander Cumming invented flush toilet

1777 - Antoine Lavoisier explained the nature of combustion or burning

1780 - Lazzaro Spallanzani proved that reproduction requires both semen and an ovum

1781 - Claude-François-Dorothée, marquis de Jouffroy d'Abbans invented steamboat

1781 - William Herschel discovered planet Uranus

1783 - the Montgolfier brothers, Joseph Michel and Jacques-Étienne, invented the hot air balloon

1784 - Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom

1785 - James Hutton issued the Theory of the Earth which is considered as establishment of modern geology

1789 - James Watt invented the centrifugal governor for steam engine

1789 - Martin Heinrich Klaproth discovered uranium

1790 - Comte de Sivrac developed a two-wheeler

1791 - Luigi Galvani demonstrated the electricity upon the muscles of frogs

1791 - Philippe Pinel began to treat the mental illness as a disease

1792 - William Murdoch invented the gas lighting

1792 - Claude Chappe invented the optical telegraph

1795 - Joseph Bramah invented the hydraulic press

1796 - Alois Senefelder invented the hydraulic press

1797 - André-Jacques Garnerin carried out the first jump with a Silk parachute

1800 - Alessandro Volta invented the electric battery

1800 - John Loudon McAdam invented a new process, macadamisation, for building roads

1800 - Henry Laudslay invented the first screw-cutting lathe

1801 - Johann Wilhelm Ritter discovered ultraviolet radiation

1802 - Joseph Gay-Lussac formulated the law that a gas expands linearly with a fixed pressure and rising temperature

1803 - steam-powered ship was invented by Robert Fulton

1804 - Robert Stephenson created first steam locomotive

1804 - Richard Trevithick built the first working railway steam locomotive

1804 - George Caylay made a model gliders similar to modern aircraft

1806 - Joseph Marie Jacquard invented Jacquard's loom mechanism which is controlled by recorded patterns of holes in a string of cards

1807-08 Humphry Davy discovered electrolysis and with it also natrium and potassium

1809 - Jean-Baptiste Lamarck founded the evolution theory

1811 - Amedeo Avogadro first distinguished the atoms from molecules

1813 - Jöns Jakob Berzelius invented the modern chemical notation

1814 - Joseph von Fraunhofer founded the stellar spectroscopy

1814 - George Stephenson designed the steam locomotive named Rocket

1815 - Humphry Davy invented the safety lamp for miners known as Davy lamp

1817 - Karl Drais invented the Laufmaschine (running machine), known also as draisine which became a basic to the bicycle and motorcycle

1818 - James Blundell performed the first successful transfusion of blood

1820 - Hans Christian Ørsted discovered the relationship between electricity and magnetism known as electromagnetism

1821 - Michael Faraday designed the electric motor

1824 - Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines

1825 - the first railway was constructed in northern England connecting Stockton and Darlington

1826 - André-Marie Ampère discovered the Ampère's Circuital law about the circulating magnetic field in a closed loop to the electric current passing through the loop

1826 - Joseph N. Niepce created first photography (heliography)

1826 - John Walker invented the match

1827 - Georg Ohm discovered the Ohm's law about the the electrical resistivity

1827 - Benoit Fourneyron developed an outward-flow turbine

1827 - Josef Ressel invented the ship's propeller

1828 - Karl Ernst von Baer laid the foundations for the embryology

1828 - Friedrich Wöhler first artificially synthesized urea from inorganic starting materials

1829 - Louis Braille devised the braille system

1833 - André-Marie Ampere represented the theory of electromagnetism and electrodynamics

1835 - Samuel Colt invented revolver

1837 - Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph

1837 - Augustus Siebe invented the standard diving dress

1838 - Louis Daguerre invented the daguerreotype process of photography in which the image is exposed directly onto a mirror-polished surface of silver bearing a coating of silver halide particles deposited by iodine vapor

1838 - SS Sirius was the first steamship which crossed Atlantic Ocean

1839 - James Nasmyth invented the steam hammer

1839 - Theodor Schwann formulated the cell theory

1839 - Kirkpatrick MacMillan invented the pedal driven bicycle

1839 - Charles Goodyear invented the vulcanized rubber

1840 - Christian Friedrich Schönbein discovered ozone

1840 - Justus von Leibig created first artificial fertilizer

1842 - Johann Christian Andreas Doppler published what is now known as the Doppler effect

1843-1853 - the construction of the London Underground

1847 - Ascanio Sobrero discovered nitroglycerin

1848 - William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin developed the Kelvin scale of absolute temperature measurement

1849 - James Bicheno Francis invented the Francis turbine which is an inward flow reaction turbine that combines radial and axial flow concepts

1850 - Rudolf Clausius introduced the concept of entropy