TRANSPORT IN THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


The invention of the Internal combustion engine fastened the use of oil in industry and led to fast progress of automotive industry. Demands for fast raw material transport into manufacturing centers and products on the market fastened the railway construction and domination of steamboats with iron hulks on seas. Significant importance for transport progress was also the invention of the Internal combustion engine by Daimler and Benz in 1885. But despite the significant progress in automotive industry was possession of a car in Europe in the beginning of 20th century luxurious affordable only to the rich. The production of the Ford Model T in 1908 led to mass-production and reduced the price of a car and the most of employed people could afford one. Wide use of cars eventually led to increased use of oil and it's derivatives. World oil production enlarged from 800,000 tons in 1870 to 20,000,000 tons in 1900. Growing importance of oil production eventually led the great powers in rivalry for oil fields.

In 1903 the Wright brothers Orville and Wilbur made first heavier-than-air human flight. After the successful flight of the Wright brothers aerospace manufacturing progressed fast and after 10 years airplanes reached speed of 200 km/h and distance of 1000 km.

Progress of railway, maritime and river transport enables faster and safer traveling, while the use of telegraph and later telephone enabled communication on long distances. World became more connected, while changes in transport had also big impact on reducing the famine, faster intervention in case of natural catastrophes...

The Industrial Revolution enabled trade of products with lower prices which eventually reached the whole world. Construction of railway and improvements in maritime transport included in process of industrialization also new lands. Distant lands rich with resources and foodstuff which were imported in Europe became easier accessible. Although European states early began to protect it's agriculture through high protective customs import of larger amount of cheap wheat caused constant agriculture crisis. Agriculture could compete in global market only with modernization and enlargement of profitable estates. Large estates and farms usually did not had problems with capital and could easily introduce machinery and artificial fertilizers what cheapened and increased their production. Smaller farmers were not financial capable to modernize their production and mostly had to little land for rent able farming. Improvements in transport in first place railway construction take away former additional income with domestic craft, shipping, rafting,... Many peasants bankrupt and because the countryside did not enabled them possibility to make money they migrated into urban areas and many of them also in outland.