STEEL INDUSTRY IN THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


Essential innovations were made in iron industry, chemical industry and the production of energy. The invention of the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process enabled the mass-production of quality steel. Besides the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process was essential for the progress of iron production of iron in Europe the Gilchrist-Thomas process. The Gilchrist-Thomas process enabled the production of steel from less qualitative ironstone mixed with phosphorus. Cheaper production of steel led to enlargement of steel production and lower prices of steel. In 1870 was produced 520,000 tons of steel and in 1909 already 28,000,000 tons of steel.