PROGRESS OF SCIENCE IN THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


The biggest importance for technological progress had the progress of natural history sciences, in first place physics and chemistry. Ernest Rutherford discovered radioactivity and with Niels Bohr made the model of the atom, while Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays or Röntgen rays. Theodor Boveri discovered chromosomes in cells of living creatures what eventually led to establishment of modern genetics. In 1865 Gregor Mendel showed that the inheritance of traits follows particular laws and enabled the production of more fertile plant hybrids.

Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table which fastened the discovery of new chemical elements. The Law of conservation of energy was formulated, synthetic rubber was made, ammonia was discovered, radium was discovered by Maria Curie and her husband Pierre...

Discoveries in chemistry fastened the progress of chemical industry and replacement of natural materials with artificial (plastic, artificial silk and rubber, synthetic colors, celluloid, dynamite). New discoveries in chemistry were essential for progress of production of synthetic drugs and textile, artificial fertilizers, soap factories, glass factories...