MIGRATION DURING THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


Europe economically progressed fast in the second half of 19th century but was not able to employ whole population. Europe in 19th century faced demographic explosion. In 1800 Europe had 187 million and in 1913 468 million of population. Those who could not found employment were forced to migrate. Migration from Europe could be divided on:

- migration from western and northwestern Europe until 1860

- migration from German stets after 1860

- migration of Russians and Poles before the World War I

Beside Europe migration also occurred in China and India. Most of the people migrated in North America and partly also in South America, Australia and parts of Africa. Causes for mass migration were in homeland as well in outland. Domestic causes for migration were:

- demographic explosion which made impossible for everyone to find employment

- unemployment

- political and religious persecutions (Huguenots, Irish, Poles...)

- migration of convicts (in Australia)

- economic crisis

- famine

Causes for migration were also in outland:

- cheap or even free land

- employment in mines and factories

- political and religious freedom

- golden rush

Among other the consequence of mass migrations was Europeanisation of some overseas lands. In lands appropriate for life of Europeans took place mass immigration which caused the decline of native peoples and their culture. In those lands expanded European civilisation and culture (USA, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia,...). Mass migration caused also expansion of political power of European states.

The industrial Revolution caused also the collapse of traditional agriculture economy. The traditional production could not compete with the modern production and lower prices so many smaller farmers bankrupt. Harsh conditions were also worsened by economic crises and bad harvests which caused appearance of famine. Numerous plant diseases on potato, vineyards,... additionally decreased the agricultural production, while in Europe circulated rumours about better life in America.

The biggest migration changes occurred in Europe, China and India because of emigrating and the USA and Canada because of immigration.