THE (FIRST) INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN CONTINENTAL EUROPE AND USA


In compare with Great Britain the Industrial Revolution in Continental Europe began latter. After the defeat of Napoleon in the Battle of Waterloo on June 18, 1815, Europe entered a period of Restoration and politics of balance between great powers. Although after the Congress of Vienna (1815) followed a long period of peace soon appeared the rising conflict between growing middle class and so called Conservative Order. This conflict led to liberal and national movements which in first place reflected the economic demands of growing middle class. The liberalism in Continental Europe was progressing slowly, while state control, serfdom, guilds and large political division hindered the industrial progress. Therefor liberals demanded a constitution which would brought political and economic freedom.

The Industrial Revolution in Continental Europe began different from state to state. The Industrial Revolution began at first in Belgium, the Netherlands, France and Switzerland in 1/3 of 19th century, while in Germany and other European states Industrial Revolution began after 1830 and especially after the middle of 19h century. The main cause for late outbreak of the Industrial Revolution in Europe were less favourable conditions in compare with Great Britain. The Industrial Revolution and economic progress in Germany was hindered by territorial and political division, while mercantilism and lack of influential businessmen hindered industrial progress in France. In France was whole 19th century in first place in economy agricultural production and not industry. Beside that was France in compare with Great Britain economical backward both in textile and metal industry. First coke blast furnace in France was used in 1818, while was the puddling process for manufacturing iron first introduced in 1820. The economical division in Germany was removed by establishment of the German Confederation in 1815. Decisive impact on German economic progress had the establishment of the German Customs Union which removed internal customs barriers in 1834.

At last the Industrial Revolution reached eastern Europe and Russia. Feudalism in Russia was not abandoned until 1861 what caused the lack of labour force necessary for industrialization. Lots of natural resources had a very big impact on fast industrialization of the United States of America in beginning of 19th century but for the economic progress and Industrial Revolution in the United States was essential the migration after 1850. The main export product of the United States was a long period cotton although the railway construction which began in 1830 led to the progress of metal industry. Latter and oil refineries latter became the base for economic progress of the United States.