NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN TEXTILE AND METAL INDUSTRY


Base for the introduction of new technologies during Industrial Revolution was the textile industry. Procedures from yarn to textile would enabled increase of production only with extension of working hours or employment of larger labour force. Because about 27% employed in England and Wales were working in wool trade textile industrialists were forced to raise productivity if they wished to produce larger scale of textiles. Latter required improvement of technics. In 1764 industrialist James Hargreaves invented spinning jenny which reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn but it was still based on procedure of manual spinning. Invention of water-frame in 1768 by Richard Arkwright and spinning mule in 1779 by Samuel Crompton helped the advancement of the automatic spinning frame. In compare with spinning weaving technology stayed behind. The first attempt to mechanise weaving was made in 1785 by Edmund Cartwright but mechanised weaving did not reach the quality of manual weaving until 1823.

The introduction of steam power made industry independent from water power and increased speed, efficiency and preciseness of production. The Watt steam engine invented by James Watt was first used in 1776 in blast furnace and latter also in textile industry. By 1800 were in use about 1000 Watt steam engines.

After textile industry technological progress reached also metal industry. The introduction of the puddling process in 1784 by Henry Cort improved the quality of iron production. The innovations in rolling mills enlarged the production of steel, while introduction of coke blast furnaces led to a further progress in the metal industries.