IMPROVEMENTS IN TRANSPORT


Beside increase of production in industry was for further economical progress also necessary improved and reliable transport. Great Britain started to construct waterways very early and in 18th century was number of canals widened from 165 to 1004 kilometers.

Transportation via waterways reduced the costs of transportation of large scale of raw material especially coal and iron. For the Industrial Revolution was beside low costs of transportation also essential faster transportation of people, raw materials and products.

After introduction of Watt steel engine in manufacturing steam was introduced also in transport. In 1804 first steel locomotive was built by Richard Trevithick but it was too heavy for the cast-iron plate way track then in use. The break through was reached in 1829 with steam locomotive "Rocket" built by George Stephenson which led to the official opening of the railway almost a year later on 15 September, 1830, on the line Liverpool-Manchester. The birth of railway improved the transport on the one hand, while on the other hand led to progress of iron industry because of growing demands for iron for manufacturing of locomotives, wagons and rails.

In years 1830-1850 British rail network was widened from 152 to 10,653 kilometers, while Germany started the construction of railways in 1835. In 1850 Germany had 6,044 kilometers of railway, while the United States of America had 14,524 kilometers of railway.

Important improvements occurred also in coastal sail where steamboats replaced the sailing vessels and essentially shortened the time of travel. The sailing vessels were sailing over the Atlantic in average for 35 day, while the steamboats needed only 12,5 days.